"Cyber espionage is a fact of life internationally. And the fact that it continues to be a fact of life internationally is a product of the fact that it has been so successful internationally."
So said David Irvine, former director-general of the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO), and former head of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS), at Fortinet's Security 361° Symposium in Sydney on Wednesday.
News of cyber espionage is commonplace now, with nearly every story pointing the finger at unspecified nation-state actors. Well, unless they straight-up finger China. Or Russia. Or Iran.
Irvine mentioned the breach of the Australian parliamentary network in 2011, and the breach of the Bureau of Meteorology revealed in 2015. But he was particularly impressed with the breach of the US Office of Personnel Management (OPM), revealed in 2015.